Objects that pass electrical energy or heat energy are called conductive materials in physics. Electrical conductivity is the ability of an object to conduct electricity. Silver, copper, gold and aluminum are good conductors. The main feature of these substances is that electrons can separate from their atoms and move freely. Gas and liquids, on the other hand, conduct the electric current in an ionized state. Free electrons on conductors easily carry electric current. All metals are conductive. But the most commonly used element as a conductor is copper. Copper is widely used in electrical transmission. Glass, ceramics, plastic materials and similar materials hardly conduct electricity. With these properties, they are used as insulators. The best conductive material is gold first and then silver. The human body is also a good conductor.
The main characteristics of the conductors are:
- They conduct electrical current very well.
- The electrons are weakly attached to the atom. When they see the electric current, electrons are easily separated from the atom.
- Metals and some liquids and gases are used as conductors.
- Metals are better conductors than liquids and gases, but in themselves separate good conductors and bad conductors.
- Gold, silver and copper are good conductors.
- Copper is a poor conductor than gold and silver, but it is used more because it is economical.
Substances that do not conduct electrical current are called insulators. Insulating materials are used for the insulation of conductive materials. Rubber, air, wood, oil, glass and plastic are insulating materials. Electrons do not move in these substances.
Importance of conducting current carrying control of conductors
Current carrying control is the testing of the current carrying capacity of the cables. According to the test results, it is confirmed whether the conductor cross section used is suitable. The calculations are based on whether the supply voltage is two-phase or three-phase. The current carrying capacity of the conductors is different depending on the type of production and the environment in which they will be used.
In the annex of the Regulation on Health and Safety in the Use of Work Equipment issued by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security in 2013, related to maintenance, repair and periodic checks (Annex-III), the current transport control of conductors is included in the subject of installations. Accordingly, the persons carrying out the current carrying control of the conductors must be electrical engineers, electrical technicians or high technicians. This is important for the checks and reports to be made to be valid.
The legal regulations that should be taken into consideration during the controls are explained as follows:
- Regulation on Grounding in Electrical Installations issued in 2001
- Implementing Regulation on Electric High Current Installations issued in 2000
- Regulation on Electrical Indoor Facilities issued in 1984
Current carrying capacity means the highest current value at which a conductor can be used safely and reliably without any component being broken down, mainly on a temperature basis. There is a direct effect between the current carrying capacity and the choice of conductor to be used. There is also a voltage drop factor for the conductors.
Voltage drop means that the voltage decreases at the distance from the source to the load due to losses caused by the internal resistance of a conductor. The further the transport distance, the greater the loss. In this case, the conductor cross-section to be used must be enlarged.
Using these parameters it is necessary to decide the most suitable conductor. In order to decide this, it is necessary to measure the current carrying capacity and voltage drop value of the conductors accurately and reliably.
Many test and inspection organizations carry out current carrying checks of conductors. our organization TÜRCERT Technical Control and Certification Inc. conducts the current transport control services of the conductors together with a competent manager and employee staff and a strong infrastructure.