It is necessary to measure, analyze and evaluate the quality of electricity regularly in devices that consume electrical energy. This measurement is called harmonic measurement. Harmonic measurement works are carried out with portable or fixed devices. In general, large industrial plants have constant power quality analyzers in their facilities and collect the data on a computer. Constant harmonic measuring devices continuously measure and record in the system and thus continuously show the energy quality of the enterprise.
It is possible to examine short-term voltage drops and increases, high or low voltages, short-term interruptions, current voltage waveforms, frequency changes, instability and many other parameters by measuring with portable or fixed type energy quality analyzers.
In general, when it is desired to make regular measurements or to make measurements for the installation of new compensation system, measurements with portable devices are sufficient. Compensation is the studies carried out with the aim of bringing the phase difference between current and voltage to the optimum value and bringing the reactive loads adversely affecting the system to zero. On the one hand, the cost of energy production increases on the one hand and the need for electrical energy increases continuously. In particular, it has become a necessity to consume electrical energy under the most favorable conditions.
Energy Analysis, Importance of Harmonic Measurement
A number of parameters are obtained in measurements with portable or fixed harmonic measuring devices. These values are: voltage abnormalities such as voltage values, current values, instantaneous voltage drops and rises, changes in frequency, changes in current and voltage waveform, maximum and minimum values of current, voltage and power, active power, inductive and capacitive reactive power, apparent power , power factor, total current harmonic distortion value, total voltage harmonic distortion value, individual current harmonics, individual voltage harmonics and energy state.
However, it is not enough to obtain all these values. The important thing is to make the measurements at the right points and under the right conditions and evaluate them correctly.
In power systems, the waveform of current and voltage is expected to have a certain structure. However, this is not always possible. Harmonic is the distortion of the waveform. Signals at different frequencies cause current and voltage waveform distortion. Switching with semiconductor elements or the connection of transformers, arc furnaces, induction furnaces and similar devices to the network may be effective in distorting the waveform.
Harmonics cause extra energy losses in generators, capacitors, transformers, electric motors and power transmission lines. In some cases, harmonics damage the power system elements and cause them to fail. In addition, harmonics cause resonance, which causes overcurrents and voltages, damaging the devices in operation.
A number of methods are applied to reduce the effects of harmonics in enterprises. In order to investigate the harmonic negativities and eliminate the effects, it is necessary to make detailed analyzes in harmonic systems.
Energy analysis and harmonic measurement are included in the annex of the Regulation on Conditions of Health and Safety in the Use of Work Equipment issued by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (Annex-III) on issues related to maintenance, repair and periodic checks. Therefore, analysis and measurement work must be carried out by electrical engineers, electrical technicians or high technicians.
Today, many test and inspection institutions provide energy analysis and harmonic measurement services to the enterprises. Within this framework, our organization TÜRCERT Technical Control and Certification Inc. provides energy analysis and harmonic measurement services to the demanding enterprises with a competent manager and employee staff and a strong infrastructure.