Ultrasonic inspection is a non-destructive method of producing high frequency sound waves using special inspection heads. With this method, invisible defects in the interior of the materials are detected. In addition, ultrasound examination method is used to determine the thickness of materials, to understand their flexibility and to investigate the grain structure.
The word means ultrasound, ultrasound or ultrasound. Ultrasound is called sounds with a vibration frequency higher than 20 kHz. It is impossible for the human ear to hear this sound. These sounds are generated by the vibration frequency, propagated as a vibration movement and are detected using special devices.
If electrical voltage is applied to quartz crystal or similar materials, their length will be shortened or shortened. The ultrasound produced in this way is sent into the material to be examined. These sound waves propagate linearly within the material. In the meantime, if there are points in the material that have different properties such as a gap or crack, the intensity of the sound waves reflected from the surfaces of these regions decreases. This information is evaluated on the oscilloscope screen and faulty or defective areas are detected.
Briefly, the high frequency sound waves sent into the material are reflected if they encounter any obstacles. Depending on the angle of impact, these reflected sound waves produce wave lines on the screen of the ultrasonic examination device. The coordinates of the obstacle in the material are calculated according to the position of the reflection. The height of the reflection on the screen gives an idea about the dimensions of the obstacle.
Two kinds of measurements are made by ultrasonic examination method. Either size measurement is performed (such as thickness, length or surface hardness measurements) or the properties of the material are determined (grain size, residues, cold and hot processing grades, error detection and internal stress detection).
Among the non-destructive testing methods, there are some superior aspects of ultrasonic testing technique. For example, defects in materials can be detected in three dimensions. This method is easy to implement. Defects in the material are detected with great precision. No excess consumables are used during application. In particular, planar errors of thick parts are detected more precisely.
Standards for Ultrasonic Inspection
The ultrasonic inspection method, which allows the inspection and inspection of a finished part or material without destruction, has a wide application area.
During the inspection work, TS EN ISO 2014 Non-Destructive Testing - Ultrasonic Inspection - Transition Technique standard published in 16823 is based. This standard replaces the previously applied TS EN 583-3 standard.
Nowadays, there are many testing and inspection institutions that apply and evaluate ultrasonic examination methods. What is important is that these works are carried out by mechanical engineers who comply with TS EN ISO 9712 Non-Destructive Testing - NDT personnel qualification and certification - General specifications standard (formerly TS 7477 EN 473 standard).
The standards applied in the application of ultrasonic examination technique are:
- TS EN ISO 16810 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic inspection - General principles (previous EN 583 standard)
- TS EN 12668-1 Non-destructive testing - Characterization and verification of ultrasonic testing equipment - Part 1: Devices
- TS EN 12668-2 Non-destructive testing - Part 2: Probes
- TS EN 12668-3 Non-destructive testing - Part 3: Combined equipment
- TS EN ISO 2400 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic inspection - Calibration block number: Specification for 1 (previous EN 12223 standard)
- TS EN ISO 7963 Nondestructive testing - Ultrasonic inspection - Calibration block number: Specifications for 2
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