Internationalı Organic TarıAccording to the definition of the Federation of Movements, organic agriculture is a production system that ensures the health of people, land and ecosystem. Organic agriculture studies are based on the protection of ecological process and biodiversity by opposing the use of inputs that cause a number of adverse effects in production. The aim of organic agriculture is to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of the environment by adding scientific studies and innovative approaches to the traditions that have come up to date and to provide a fair living environment for all.
There are many targets in organic agriculture studies. Here are a few of them:
- Provide plant rotation
- Using Green Fertilizer
- Encourage the use of organic fertilizers
- Keeping biological pests under control
- To rely on mechanical processing methods to ensure soil productivity
- Reject or limit the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, animal feed additives and pesticides (mixtures of substances used to prevent or control harmful organisms)
- Likewise, to refuse or limit the use of genetically modified organisms
While organic farming is done, chemical fertilizers that do not harm human health and environment are not used, disinfestation is not done and yield increasing methods are not applied by using hormones. In other words, only natural production methods are used. In organic farming, it is only allowed to add chemicals to the soil within acceptable values or to apply pharmaceuticals that are not harmful to the ecological system and human health.
Organic Agriculture Studies in Turkey
In our country, organic agriculture is carried out only under the supervision and supervision of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock within the framework of the Law on Organic Agriculture and related regulations. The purpose of this law, which was enacted in 2004, is to ensure the production and development of organic products and inputs to provide consumers with quality and reliable products. In addition, the National Steering Committee for Organic Agriculture was established following this law. This Committee is composed of representatives of relevant public institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations, professional organizations and the private sector.
Based on this law, the Regulation on the Principles and Implementation of Organic Agriculture has been issued. The purpose of this regulation is determined as follows:
- Maintain ecological balance
- To carry out organic agricultural activities
- Organizing organic agricultural production and marketing
- Developing and expanding organic agricultural production
The said regulation covers the following activities:
- All kinds of plant, animal and aquaculture production and inputs to be used in accordance with organic farming methods or to provide
- Properties of yeast used as food or feed
- Collection of products from forest and natural areas in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture
- Processing, packaging, labeling, storage, transportation, marketing, control, certification, inspection and penal provisions of the collected products
Unfortunately, our country has lagged behind many countries in terms of organic agricultural production. Efforts to adopt and enforce the laws and regulations described above are very recent. The lack of awareness of our people is also effective in this. Since organic products cannot find buyers in our country, the producers are generally directed to foreign markets. Nevertheless, the demand for organic agriculture has been increasing in our country in recent years.
Organic Agriculture Studies in the World
Organic farming methods are carried out within the framework of legal regulations made in many countries today. Most of the standards developed in this area have been prepared by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), which was established in 1972 and has a peak organizational view.
This organization emphasizes the following features that should be in organic agriculture:
- Synthetic chemicals should not be used in production activities.
- When combating diseases and pests, biological, biotechnical and mechanical control methods should be used.
- Only natural substances should be used to improve soil fertility.
- Agricultural production should not lead to depletion of natural resources
It is not only organic production that is essential in organic agriculture approach. The processing and marketing methods of the products must be done with the same idea. It is important not to use additives, to use environmentally friendly packaging materials and to respect human and animal rights. These are the principles of the organic agriculture approach.
According to scientific researches, unconscious agricultural activities cause deterioration of natural plant and soil structure and damage to biological diversity, threaten human, animal and plant health and lead to depletion and pollution of underground water resources.
Based on these facts, the European Union published Council Regulation 1991 / 2092 (ECC) in 91, which includes indicators on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs. Later, many Council and Commission Regulations and amendments and additions were made to this regulation and additional arrangements were made to ensure the harmonization of the new member states of the European Union. This regulation also includes the origin of non-organic agricultural products and provisions regulating the import of organic products from third countries to European Union countries.
Today, the said Regulation on Organic Agriculture, 2092 / 91, directs organic farming practices all over the world.
Objective of Organic Agriculture Applications
Dangerous developments in human, environment and plant health have pushed people towards new searches and organic agriculture has spread all over the world. However, considering the general approach, it is seen that developed countries are the target markets for developing countries in organic agriculture. European Union countries have the largest organic food market in the world.
Although the main objective of organic farming practices is seen as the idea of healthy eating and protection of human and animal health, the idea of leaving a more livable world for future generations is also the major goal of organic farming practices.
With the twentieth century, the philosophy of protecting natural resources, protecting the environment and leaving a cleaner world to future generations without destroying natural resources began to develop. Synthetic chemicals are increasingly used as fertilizers and pesticides and are the biggest obstacle to the achievement of the objectives described above. The use of wrong and excessive chemical fertilizers in production has accelerated after the second world war. Agriculture before that was already organic farming. Therefore, organic farming is not a new method. In a sense, agricultural production in the original turn.
On the one hand, the use of more chemical fertilizers, on the other hand, as a result of innovations brought by technological development to agricultural techniques, natural resources have become damaged, depleted and dangerous for human and animal health.
With the development of the organic agriculture sector, necessary legal arrangements were made not only in the European Union countries and in our country but also in all countries of the world and organic farming laws were enacted for the production, processing and marketing of organic agricultural products. Organic farming has become a sustainable agricultural model.
Organic farming practices have many benefits. For example,
- Future generations are protected
- Soil losses are prevented
- Water quality is preserved
- Energy saving
- Chemical residue in products is prevented
- Agricultural production workers are protected
- Producers earn more
- Economic production is aimed
our organization TÜRCERT Technical Control and Certification Inc.Is ready to assist with any doubts about Organic Agriculture and certification activities.